2019 ASCO Annual Meeting!
Session: Plenary Session Including the Distinguished Achievement Award and Science of Oncology Award Lecture
Type: Plenary Session
Time: Sunday June 2, 1:00 PM to 4:00 PM
Location: Hall B1
Affordable Care Act (ACA) Medicaid expansion impact on racial disparities in time to cancer treatment.
Disparities/Access to Care
Health Services Research, Clinical Informatics, and Quality of Care
2019 ASCO Annual Meeting
J Clin Oncol 37, 2019 (suppl; abstr LBA1)
Author(s): Blythe J.S. Adamson, Aaron B. Cohen, Melissa Estevez, Kelly Magee, Erin Williams, Cary Philip Gross, Neal J. Meropol, Amy J. Davidoff; Flatiron Health, New York, NY; Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT; Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT
Background: Racial disparities in cancer outcomes remain a societal challenge. The ACA sought to improve equity in healthcare access and outcomes by permitting states to expand Medicaid and providing subsidies for purchase of private insurance. We assessed the impact of Medicaid expansions on racial disparities in time to treatment among patients (pts) with advanced cancer. Methods: We selected pts ages 18-64 years with advanced or metastatic cancer (NSCLC, breast, urothelial, gastric, colorectal, renal cell, prostate, and melanoma), diagnosed between Jan 1, 2011 and Dec 31, 2018, from the nationwide Flatiron Health electronic health record-derived database. We assigned expansion status based on whether the pts’ state of residence had expanded Medicaid as of the diagnosis date. We estimated Medicaid expansion-related changes in the rate of “timely treatment,” an outcome defined as first-line treatment start within 30 days of advanced or metastatic diagnosis. Regression model covariates included race (White, African American, Asian, and Other race), age, sex, practice type, cancer type, stage, and unemployment rate, using time and state fixed-effects. Regression results present predictive margins. Results: The study included 34,067 pts (median age 57 years; 12% African American). Racial disparities were observed pre-expansion: African American pts were 4.9 percentage points (%pt) less likely to receive timely treatment (Table). Regardless of race, Medicaid expansion trended toward an increase in timely treatment overall (p = 0.05). Expansion was associated with a differential benefit for African American vs white pts (6.9 %pt and 1.8 %pt). Prior racial disparities were no longer observed after Medicaid expansion. Conclusions: Implementation of Medicaid expansions as part of the ACA differentially improved African American cancer pts’ receipt of timely treatment, reducing racial disparities in access to care.
|Adjusted disparity (African American vs whites)||-4.9**||0.2||5.1**|
** p < 0.05